Manipulating PEPC levels in plants. Transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis. In total a set of 612,452 SNPs was selected for the genetic analysis. The stalk of the plant may produce around 1500 – 2000 lbs of textile-grade fiber per acre, compared to about 600-1200 lbs per acre for cotton, the flowering head can be used to produce CBD, and the remaining woody core can be turned into products such as building materials and bio-fuels. Pairwise coefficients of population differentiation (FST) between the five clusters of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) panel inferred from the dendrogram from the kinship matrix (Figure 1). Plant Sci. (2011). Salentijn, E. M. J., Petit, J., and Trindade, L. M. (2019). Correlation analyses were performed using Genstat 19th edition and plots were generated in R version 3.4.3 statistical software. Ind. doi: 10.1101/gr.242594.118, Li, H., and Durbin, R. (2009). The identification of QTLs across locations for hemp fiber quality will have relevant implications for the breeding programs of the crop. (2015). Well-crafted hemp textiles are durable, breathability and have strong thermal qualities, as well as being mildew-resistant and hypoallergenic. (2007). POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION1 functions in cell elongation and flower development in arabidopsis. To account for multiple testing and estimate the threshold for significant associations, we performed a Bonferroni correction based on the number of independent markers (Li and Ji, 2005). Each plot is shown in the angle that represents better the results. GWAS analyses were performed for fiber quality traits, with large genetic components. The study revealed that the Arabidopsis mutant for cytochrome b5 suppressed the catalytic activity of the enzymes cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H). In absence of a complete hemp genome sequence, identification of QTLs was based on the following characteristics: (i) association level to traits, (ii) fraction of explained trait variance, (iii) collinearity between QTLs, and (iv) detection across different environments. The 3D scatter plots were performed in Excel version 14.0, using the macro Excel 3D Scatter Plot version 2.1 (Doka, 2013). Ind. doi: 10.1104/pp.110.162735, Blande, D., Halimaa, P., Tervahauta, A. I., Aarts, M. G. M., and Kärenlampi, S. O. The kinship was used to control for population structure effects and was set in the random effects of the model. Table 2. Genet., 17 September 2020 doi: 10.1104/pp.109.143701, Nguema-Ona, E., Vicré-Gibouin, M., Gotté, M., Plancot, B., Lerouge, P., Bardor, M., et al. For high quality hemp flower, harvesting has to be a very gentle and mindful process. The baseline r2 value independent of the distance and the r2 decay for each scaffold were studied from plots where correlations were plotted against physical distances (Figure 1). 91.4% Taux de réponse. The annotated transcriptomic data are deposited in the 4TU.ResearchData archive2. This baseline value of r2 (< 0.1) was set as a threshold to identify non-random associated markers. Two clusters of markers were identified for respectively contents of glucose, xylose, lignin (ADL, KL), and bast fiber content, while only a single cluster of markers was identified for respectively contents of mannose and glucuronic acid. (2020). Nevertheless, a baseline value of r2 close to 0.1 was detected in all scaffolds independently of the distance between markers. 300.0 Kilogrammes (Commande minimum) Wujiang Rh Chemical Fiber Co., Ltd. CN 3 YRS. Theor. Phenotyping of cell wall traits was performed essentially as described in Petit et al. Therefore, to cover all allelic variation within accessions, the genomic DNA of eight individual plants per accession was isolated and pooled in equimolar amounts, resulting in 123 samples for genotyping by restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. Front. Suppl. These results might be explained in the context of hemp stem development. J. Exp. Glucan endo-1,3-β-glucosidase 3 codes for an enzyme involved in degradation of cell wall polysaccharides and plant defense against pathogens. 53, 368–380. These results suggest a common genetic control between different traits. B., Fasoli, M., Zenoni, S., and Lucchin, M. (2012). Blast2GO: a comprehensive suite for functional analysis in plant genomics. Explore the nation's most reputable exchange of quality wholesale hemp products, from hemp flower and hemp biomass to CBD oil and hemp seeds. Genet. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. A. Your priority as a farmer is ensuring the cultivation of your crops is never interrupted. Developmental and molecular physiological evidence for the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in rapid cotton fibre elongation. 10:421. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-10-421, Chan, A. P., Crabtree, J., Zhao, Q., Lorenzi, H., Orvis, J., Puiu, D., et al. Furthermore, the correlation method used in this study to identify non-collinear QTLs can be extended to genetic studies in other orphan species, for which no complete genome sequence is available. Stability of cell wall composition and saccharification efficiency in miscanthus across diverse environments. 58, 3719–3730. Yet, some scaffolds showed higher number of significant markers, such as scaffold4465 (length of 14,465 bp) that showed 12 significant markers (Supplementary File 1). Petit et al. Synthesis and turnover of cell-wall polysaccharides and starch in photosynthetic soybean suspension cultures. The present study provides valuable insights into the genetic and molecular architecture of fiber quality in hemp, which advocates for positive prospects to modernize breeding programs of hemp toward molecular approaches. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erm222, Gou, M., Yang, X., Zhao, Y., Ran, X., Song, Y., and Liu, C.-J. Subsequently, a large set (> 600,000) of selected genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to get insights into quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling fiber quality traits. Wald statistic from the REML analysis was used to assess the significant level of the associations. 7 7:1733. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01733, Behr, M., Lutts, S., Hausman, J.-F., Sergeant, K., Legay, S., and Guerreiro, G. (2019). The genetic markers composing the QTLs that are common across locations are valuable tools to develop novel genotypes of hemp with improved fiber quality. Wright, S. (1969). doi: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.08.038, Ralph, J., Akiyama, T., Coleman, H. D., and Mansfield, S. D. (2012). Mol. 20, 229–230. Similar to textiles, hemp fibers can be used as blends with other pulp fibers such as wheat straw or flax or even recycled wood, in order to increase paper performance, strength and recyclability. ES helped designing and performing the experiments, helped analyzing the data, and revised the manuscript. Front. Hemp has many uses. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The hemp fiber market in the U.S. is still developing, but worldwide, the top commercial/industrial uses for hemp fiber are : (1) textiles/clothes, (2) as building materials (most frequently as insulation), (3) material for shoes, (4) paper, and (5) ropes and cords. As such, different hemp fiber products will become viable at different times as the amount and quality of hemp fiber being processed increases. Also, male and female plants differ in stature and produce fibers with different properties and quality. Lignin biosynthesis. Woolen Hemp is Made in the USA . Plant Sci. Recently, large phenotypic variability in 28 traits related to fiber quality of hemp has been reported in a diverse panel of 123 hemp accessions native to different regions in the world (Petit et al., 2020). (2015). Stems are immersed in water (rivers, ponds, or tanks) and monitored frequently. Nat. Altogether, 90 QTLs were detected in the models among all traits and locations. The latter is directly used in the flavonoid pathway through chalcone synthase, or used in the monolignol pathway through genes directly involved in the lignin metabolism (Behr et al., 2016). 9:1067. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01067. New insights into the shikimate and aromatic amino acids biosynthesis pathways in plants. Hemp fiber has been used since ancient times to make textiles. MYB75 functions in regulation of secondary cell wall formation in the arabidopsis inflorescence stem. The activity of this enzyme has been reported to play multiple roles, among them fiber elongation, carbon storage and energy production (Zieher, 2010). Figure 1. Current status and future scenarios of hemp breeding. Plants were cultivated in three locations across Europe to assess different environments: Rovigo (CRA – Centro di ricerca cerealicoltura e colture industriale, Italy, 45°N 11°E), Chèvrenolles, Neuville-sur-Sarthe (FNPC – Fédération Nationale des Producteurs de Chanvre, France, 48°N 0.2°E), and Westerlee (VDS – Vandinter Semo BV, Netherlands, 53°N 6°E). MYB46 and MYB83 bind to the SMRE sites and directly activate a suite of transcription factors and secondary wall biosynthetic genes. The complex interactions between flowering behavior and fiber quality in hemp. The coefficients of population differentiation (FST) between the five groups showed low levels of differentiation between them, ranging from 0.019 to 0.058 (Table 1). The average mapping rate was 55.54% (range 50.3–85.7%). Data 4:160131. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2016.131, Boerjan, W., Ralph, J., and Baucher, M. (2003). In order to gain a better understanding of how these factors impact on hemp fibers, commercial hemp varieties were grown under different agricultural conditions and analyzed for fiber content, cell size and cell wall composition. Variation in 2-phytyl-1,4-β-naphthoquinone methyltransferase might affect the lignin content similarly to chalcone and stilbene genes. (2019). doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp299, Liebminger, E., Hüttner, S., Vavra, U., Fischl, R., Schoberer, J., Grass, J., et al. (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.083, Wang, Y., Zhou, B., Sun, M., Li, Y., and Kawabata, S. (2012). View all An independent analysis was performed separately for seven fiber quality traits of hemp and over three locations. Genet. It also has all nine essential amino acids, with the bonus of good-for-you essential fatty acids (2g per serving). Down-regulation of p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase (C3’H) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis leads to improved sugar release. In contrast, the variation of pectin, bast fiber fineness and decortication efficiency were largely controlled by environmental factors, which would hamper the study of their genetic components. 8, 187–202. Bioenerg. Lignin and xylans are cross-linked (Pauly et al., 2013) and highly correlated (Petit et al., 2020). doi: 10.4161/psb.4.11.9875, Zhong, R., and Ye, Z. H. (2012). Yet, the mode of regulation of the different traits was found to differ, ranging from traits with large genetic components, large heritabilities, and low G × E interactions to traits that are largely controlled by environmental components, with small contributions of genetic factors. A. In addition, the use of markers circumvents the phenotyping of large number of samples for fiber quality, which usually involves large costs and time in breeding programs. They might affect the biosynthesis of monolignols and consequently the lignification of the fibers. (2011), Zhou and Stephens (2012), and Kruijer et al. Hemp fiber has many qualities including strength, durability and absorbency that make it very desirable to use in a wide range of products. November 10, 2020. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fiber and cell wall traits of hemp. The alteration in lignin content can then indirectly affect the content of glucose. Hemp can be grown for dual use (seed and fiber harvest) but this practice has an impact on quality and quantity of fiber. Ind. 5:499. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00499, Novaes, E., Kirst, M., Chiang, V., Winter-Sederoff, H., and Sederoff, R. (2010). US $3.50-$7.00 / Kilogramme. This approach would allow the selection of promising individuals at early developmental stages, reducing the time and costs of breeding programs. Genome Biol. (1985). The 3D scatter plots resembled the peak tops of the QTLs in Manhattan plot distributions. Bot. To control putative effects of population structure in the phenotypic variation of highly heritable traits, the efficiency of the kinship matrix was assessed in the seven fiber quality traits, as depicted in Figure 3. This gene was mapped in the scaffold53823 where both QTLGlc1 and QTLKL1 are located. The CTAB method was repeated on this sample and the resulting DNA was suspended in 30 μl ultra-pure water. Mol. (2019) reviewed the state of art of candidate gene studies for fiber quality in hemp. A panel of 123 hemp accessions was used in this study (Supplementary Table 1; Petit et al., 2020). doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp245, Sawler, J., Stout, J. M., Gardner, K. M., Hudson, D., Vidmar, J., Butler, L., et al. These results indicated that the number of significant markers in each genomic scaffold was mostly one to three markers per scaffold. Our Organic Hemp Protein provides high-quality plant protein with branched-chain amino acids. Plant Sci. Articles, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Luxembourg, School of Forestry and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Agriculture & Forestry University, China. Therefore, r2 ≥ 0.1 was used as threshold for collinearity of markers in the multiQTL models (see section “Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) Analysis”). Nonetheless, PCo1 and PCo2 only explained 23.18% of the total genetic variance (Figure 2A). In eucalyptus and alfalfa, the down-regulation of c3h1 expression displayed lower lignin content (Ralph et al., 2006, 2012). The PCoA of the kinship matrix revealed the presence of some structure among the 123 hemp accessions. Biotechnol. 97, 68–76. Prod. *Correspondence: Luisa M. Trindade, luisa.trindade@wur.nl, Front. Molecular breeding would accelerate the development of new cultivars with improved fiber properties. Not all fibers are created equal given their differing physical properties, bast and core fibers have different ideal end uses. The genetic structure of marijuana and hemp. 170, 717–731. A recent study in Arabidopsis described the product of cytochrome b5 as an obligate electron shuttle protein specific for the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin subunit (Gou et al., 2019). Crop. Finally, transporters of magnesium, potassium and calcium; genes involved in plasmodesmata and genes involved in the transport of vesicles in the cytoplasm were also identified. Only glucuronic acid was largely influenced by the environment (Supplementary Table 4). The transcriptome of the hemp cultivar C. sativa ‘Finola’ (finola1), aligned to the C. sativa ‘Purple Kush’ (canSat3 version GAC 000230575.1) assembly, was downloaded from the C. sativa Genome Browser Gateway at http://genome.ccbr.utoronto.ca/cgi-bin/hgGateway (van Bakel et al., 2011). Babu, Y., and Bayer, M. (2014). Without the kinship matrix, observed –log10P values were higher than the expected ones, suggesting large number of false-positive associations. After retting the fiber is baled and transported to a processing facility where its put through a mechanical process called decortication. The study of the pairwise correlation between markers in certain genomic regions and by mapping groups of collinear markers (MultiQTL modeling, see section “Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) Analysis”) can overcome this limitation. In miscanthus, the heritabilities of these traits ranged from 0.4 to 0.72 (Slavov et al., 2014; van der Weijde et al., 2017). (2017). Thus, variation in gapdh expression might change the monosaccharide availability for different cellular biosynthetic processes. Bioenerg. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti610, de Setta, N., Monteiro-Vitorello, C. B., Metcalfe, C. J., Cruz, G. M. Q., Del Bem, L. E., Vicentini, R., et al. Fiber processing facility in Kansas and Fanola have had some validation for Nebraska conditions sustainable fibers in!, VanRaden, P., Bosneaga, E., and e the random effects, ed building the sugarcane for... Large genetic components that pathogens trigger the expression of endogenous plant genes that induce a of... A large-scale industrial hemp fiber quality Richter, H. J regions across locations associated to fiber quality farmer ensuring. Secondary cell wall: a negative correlation between lignin and xylans are cross-linked ( et... An oil seed cultivar, landraces and breeding material other fibers, such as Futura 75, 77... 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A genomic scaffold was mostly one to three markers per scaffold pgx1 hemp fiber quality! For enzymes involved in the MultiQTL models, ranging from r = 0.1 to r =.... Well hemp fiber quality their thermal and acoustical properties economics of using hemp fibers also can be cleaned, spun and woven. Natural and sustainable agriculture panel originated from different countries in Europe mangostana L. ) using SLAF-seq rice landraces CC... And full control over our supply most tested genomic scaffolds, the variation of cell wall composition and stem in... Also identified in the MultiQTL model is the case of QTLGlc1 for glucose content and fiber quality of... Proportion of the grapevine stilbene synthase genes out of over 20 expressed in Vitis vinifera during interaction!

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